َ۬ ابِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
By: Abida Rahmani
لَّقَدۡ كَانَ لَكُمۡ فِى رَسُولِ ٱللَّهِ أُسۡوَةٌ حَسَنَة
(33-21) Indeed you have in the messenger of Allah the most beautiful Conduct.
The Ultimate Leader ship, Unparallel leader of Dawah, Training, Organization and the great Commander-in-chief”
In Quran one of the numerous verses that praise prophet (saws) it is said in surah Ahzab) “O Prophet (Muhammad SAW)! Verily, we have sent you as witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a Warner, (45) and as one who invites to Allâh [Islâmic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allâh (Alone)] by His permission, and as a lamp spreading light (through your instructions from the Qur’ân and the Sunnah the legal ways of the Prophet SAW )”.
Prophet Muhammad SAW was the best person, possessed the best qualities among his tribe Qurraish before Islam. His honesty and trust worthiness was honored as Saadiq and Ameen. But when he came from the cave of Hira with the divine message of monotheism of one Allah, just a few accepted his message. He was 40 years old at that time. In a short span of 23 years he became the most successful prophet that most of Arabia had accepted his message of Islam.
This was only because of his Ultimate leadership, unparallel leader of Dawah, Training, Organization and the great Commander- in – chief.
Prophet (SAW)’s Basic Qualities
1. Ability to command with respect
2. Trusted on sincerity of purpose
3. Confidence on ability
4. Approachable for suggestion
5. Acceptability as a leader
6. Ready to sacrifice
8. Understanding of responsibilities
1. Utmost trust in Allah(swt) for help and guidance
2. No difference in morals and acts
3. His Ability to help understand efficiently
4. His Ability to answer questions adequately
5. His Ability to acquire love and affection of the companions and followers
6. Habit of making decisions after consultation
7. Courage to encourage criticism
8. Dynamic, Keen perception and Serious
Acknowledgment by a staunch enemy:
After the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, Allah's Messenger sent letters to the rulers of neighboring countries. The Emperor of Byzantine (Rome) received it in Syria at a time when a trade caravan from Makkah headed by Abu Sufyan was in Damascus. The Emperor summoned him, and the following conversation took place:
Emperor:Do the elite or the weak mostly follow him?
Abu Sufyan:The weak.
Emperor:Do his followers increase or decrease?
Abu Sufyan:They increase.
Emperor:Has anyone apostatized after converting to Islam?
Emperor:Have you ever heard him tell a lie?
Abu Sufyan:No, never.
Struck by the answers of Abu Sufyan, who was at that time one of the bitterest enemies of Islam, the Emperor acknowledged Muhammad's position, "It is inconceivable for one who has never told a lie during his whole life to invent lies against Allah" (Al-Bukhari).
This was just because of his steadfastness on his mission and on his vision. That was to save astray people from hell fire and to succeed them in the hereafter with the gardens of Jannah.
He always encouraged truthfulness, as can be seen in the following hadiths:
"Promise me six things, and I will promise you Paradise: Speak the truth, keep your promises, fulfill your trusts, remain (sexually) chaste, do not look at what is unlawful, and avoid what is forbidden." (Authenticated by Al-Albani)
"Abandon what arouses your suspicions, and follow what is certain. Truthfulness gives satisfaction; lying causes suspicion."(At-Tirmidhi and Ahmad)
"Always be truthful, for truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. If you are always truthful and seek truthfulness, Allah records you as such. Never lie, for lying leads to shamefulness and shamefulness leads to Hell. If you insist on lying and seek deceit, Allah records you as such." (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Long suffering and forgiveness in the path of Dawah:
The patience, long sufferings and forgiveness of the Holy Prophet (SAW) are the highest qualities of his prophet hood. He never revenged for any personal or financial matter. The hardest day for him was in the battle of Uhud, when his own people disobeyed and the unbelievers caused him severe grief and affliction to the great instinct. But he contented himself to suffer and prayed for their forgiveness. He Prayed “O Allah! Show my people the right path for they do not know and forgive them.” The companions out of grief asked, “O messenger of Allah, you would have cursed them, so that they were annihilated.” He replied, “I have not been sent to curse, but to call people to the truth and as a mercy for the creation.”Prophet SAW Suffered a lot in spreading Allah’s message that was given to him. Anas (Allah be pleased with him) narrated from prophet (saw) “In the path of Allah I have been daunted and threatened more than anyone else. Once I had to pass thirty days and nights in such a dreadful condition that Bilal and I had nothing that any living being would eat, except what little Bilal had kept under his arm.”(Maariful Hadith, Shamail Tarmizi)
Once when Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) asked Propht SAW that did he suffer more than the battle of Uhud? Which he replied that the hardest day was when Holy Prophet SAW accompanied with Zaid bin Haritha went to Taif to preach oneness of Allah and to invite them to Islam. The chiefs instigated the local rowdies for mischief while he was preaching. They pelted him with stones so heavily that he began to bleed profusely. The blood clotted in his shoes, after receiving so many injuries he fainted and fell down. Zaid (ra) lifted him on his back and brought him out side of town in a canyon and sprinkled some water on him. Allah (swt) send Angeles of Torment who asked prophet SAW “if you say then these bad people will be crushed between these two hills.”
Prophet saw replied “do not do this, I pray for their guidance and I believe that they will accept Allah’s message. (Bukhari, Muslim)
The unbelievers persecuted the Holy Prophet (SAW), his companions and followers incessantly for twenty one years. They harassed, tortured and compelled them to move out from Mekkah to Madina. In Madina they attacked and fought several battles with them. But when Mekkah was conquered and these worst enemies of Islam were completely at the mercy of Prophet (SAW). At this moment just a nod from him would have rolled their heads to dust, instead he asked them, “Do you know how I am going to deal with you today?” They replied in a suppressed tone, “O truthful and trustworthy one! You are a noble brother and the son of a noble brother. We never found you merciless.” The Prophet(SAW)said, “ I say the same words to you today which Yusaf(AS) Said to his brother- no reproach is on you this day: Go, I set you all free.”
Prophet (saw) preached the message of Allah to every one, every where, day and night with all his abilities and strength. He was the greatest preacher, leader, Commander-in –chief, statesman, companion, friend, caretaker, father, relative and husband.
Hasan (may Allah be pleased with him) told on the authority of his father Ali(RA) that Prophet(saw) divided his time in three parts in his home.
Social obligations to his family
Taking some rest
Then he would further divide his own share of time between himself and for other people utilizing most of it in the matters related to Ummah. During this time he discussed matters of common interest with chosen companions. Those companions would spread out his words to other believers. He did not hold back any thing from the people; neither the religious commands of Allah (swt) nor his own deeds (sunnah). During these hours he would receive different type of people, try to solve their problems, answer their questions, sometimes ambassadors from rulers and believers of other faiths such as Jews and Christians. We may call it a Grand or General Assembly of Mohammad (SAW) with all the simplicity and grandeur of Allah (SWT). In these assemblies strategies were finalized for battles, donations collected, believers were inspired for sacrifices of life and wealth, Quran’s commands delivered and envoys send to other rulers for accepting Islam.
He would ask the people who were present there to pass on what they have learnt to those who were not present.
The Greatest commander-in-chief
وَأَعِدُّواْ لَهُم مَّا ٱسۡتَطَعۡتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ۬ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ ٱلۡخَيۡلِ تُرۡهِبُونَ بِهِۦ عَدُوَّ ٱللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّڪُمۡ وَءَاخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُهُمۡۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُواْ مِن شَىۡءٍ۬ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيۡكُمۡ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تُظۡلَمُونَ
And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war (tanks, planes, missiles, artillery) to threaten the enemy of Allâh and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allâh does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allâh shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly. (Al-Anfaal 60)
Holy Prophet (saw) planned with minimum resources available at that time to fight the battles against the enemies of Islam.
Anas(RA) narrated from Prophet (saw )”I have been favored with superiority in four things, generosity, valor, manly vigour and victory over opponents.”
On the occasion of battle of Hunain companions were greatly disturbed with limited arson and number against the enemy.But Prophet(SAW) was calm and composed on his position riding on a horse. Abu Sufyan tried to attack him. He calmly got down prayed to Allah for his help and victory,”O Allah, if this small group of your believer is defeated and killed. Then there would be no one to uphold your name. O Allah we need your help and victory”. With Allah’s guidance he picked up a handful of dust and threw it to enemy and chanted,” I am prophet of Allah, it is true. I am a descendant of Abdul Muttalib”. On that day no one was as fearless, brave and daring as he was.
Ibn Umar(RA) I have seen no one more courageous, energetic, generous and possessing highest merits than the Holy Prophet(SAW) on the day of battle of Badar. We regularly took refuge by his side and any one who kept close to him was considered to be brave, since he was so close to enemy.
The Companions (RA) contributed generously all their belongings in the way of Allah when the call was made. This generosity occurred at every battle and the greatest example is battle of Tabook. Abu baker (RA) brought all his belongings, Omar (RA) half, Osman(RA) brought 100 camels loaded with belongings and a companion worked whole night in a Jew’s field and earned a few dates. He was standing quiet at a corner, when Prophet SAW noticed him; he asked him to come forward and asked him to put his hard earned dates over all the belongings
During the battle of Ahzab the whole battle was so strategically planned with minimum resources that the Prophet (saw) ‘s army contained the enemies for so many days. Later on the enemies got frustrated and went away. In that battle when a companion showed that due to food shortage he had tied a brick to press his stomach, Prophet SAW showed him that he has tied two bricks against his stomach. During all the battles he was always at the fore front, fighting with valor, planning, courage and bravery.
Here, I will discuss in detail the treaty of Hudaiybia which proved a turning point in establishing deen of Allah (swt). Which is the greatest example of Prophet ( SAW) encompassed leadership and his planning as a greatest Commander-in –chief.
Treaty of Hudaibiyah
The Muslims and the Ka'abah
Six whole years had passed since the Hijrah, during which the Muslims longed to visit the Ka'bah and perform the pilgrimage and `umrah. One day, while they congregated in the mosque in the morning, the Prophet informed them of a vision he had seen that they should enter the holy sanctuary of Makkah secure, shaven, and unarmed, and without fear for their safety. As soon as the Muslims heard of the news, they praised God for His grace and spread the tidings all over Madinah. No one, however, could imagine how this was going to be accomplished. No! There was to be neither war nor fighting. Muhammad (SAW) proclaimed to the people that pilgrimage to Makkah would take place in the holy month of Dhu al Qi'dah. He invited other tribes too to join them on this trip for Haj. During the holy month was intended purely for pilgrimage and not for conquest, as well as to proclaim the fact that Islam had imposed pilgrimage to Makkah just as preIslamic Arab religion had done and, finally, that he had actually invited even the Arabs who were not Muslims to join in the performance of this sacred duty. , despite all this, the Qurraish insisted on fighting him during the holy month and stop them from entering Makaah at whatever cost.
Quickly, they mobilized an army, including a cavalry force of two hundred. They gave the command to Khalid ibn al Walid and 'Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl. This army advanced to Dhu Tuwa and took up position to prevent the Muslims' religious march to Makkah.
Muhammad (saw) and the Muslims continued their march. At 'Usfan, they met a tribesman of Banu Ka'b whom the Prophet questioned regarding the Qurraish. The man answered: "They heard about your march; so they marched too, pledging that they will never let you enter Makkah. Their general, Khalid ibn al Walid, set up camp for his cavalry at Kara' al Ghamim." Upon learning this, Muhammad said: "Woe to Qurraish ! If the Arab tribes destroy me, that will be the realization of their objective. If, on the other hand, Allah gives me victory, then they can enter into Islam with dignity; and if they resist, they can then fight with good cause. What does the Qurraish think? By God, I shall continue to serve that for which Allah has commissioned me until the divine message has become supreme or I lose my neck in the process." The Muslims were not afraid of battle. With the high morale they enjoyed, their swords alone would be sufficient to stop this new aggression of the Makkans. But if they did fight the Makkans, the peaceful purpose of the whole affair would not be realized. Prpohet(saw) and his followers took a more tough route through the valley which brought them to the locality of al Hudaybiyah, south of Makkah. Upon arrival at the plain of al Hudaybiyah, al Qaswa', the she-camel of the Prophet, stopped. The Muslims thought that she-camel was exhausted; but the Prophet (saw) explained that it was stopped by the same power which stopped the elephant from entering Makkah.
He then called upon the Muslims to encamp. When they complained that the place was waterless, he sent a man with a stick to one of the wells of the area and asked him to verify the existence of water. When the man plunged his stick into the bottom of the well, water sprang up; the people felt reassured, and they put up camp. The Makkans had resolved to prevent the Muslims by force from entering their city. To them, this was a clear and final commitment. Both sides preferred a settlement by the sword. The Muslims who approved of this course thought their victory would bring about a final destruction of the Qurraish.
In this way, negotiations between Muhammad (SAW) and the Qurraish lasted a long time.
The Prophet (SAW) tested the patience of the Qurraish once more by sending a delegate from his camp to negotiate with them. He called 'Umar ibn al Khattab for the job of conveying his message He counselled the Prophet to send another man, 'Osman ibn 'Affan, who was far more protected among the Qurraish than he. The Prophet called 'Osman ibn 'Affan, his son-in-law, and sent him to Abu Sufyan and the noblemen of Quraysh. 'Uthman proceeded to Makkah, and on its outskirts was met by Aban ibn Said who extended to him his protection for the duration of time that it would take him to convey his message. 'Osman approached the noblemen of Quraysh and handed over the Prophet's message. The Qurraish pleaded that they had already sworn defiantly that Muhammad would not be allowed to enter Makkah this year. The negotiations lasted a long time during which 'Osman (RA) was forced to stay in Makkah. Soon the Muslims began to suspect that he had been treacherously put to death. Muslims were greatly disturbed and prophet (saw) called his companions to him under a large tree in the middle of that valley, and there they covenanted with him to fight to the last man. Their faith was certain, their conviction was strong, and their will was determined to avenge. This covenant was called the Covenant of al Ridwan. Allah (swt) was so pleased with this that he sent these verse "Allah is pleased with the believers who have covenanted with you under the tree. God knows what is in their hearts and, therefore, He has granted them His peace and will soon give them great victory. [Qur’an, 48:18]. While in this state, the news reached them that `Uthman had not been murdered, and soon the man himself returned safe and sound.
The Qurraish sent Suhayl ibn `Amr to reconcile Muhammad and to ask him to return for the same purpose the following year. They argued that in such an arrangement the tribes would not claim that Muhammad had entered Makkah in defiance of the Qurraish. Suhayl began his negotiations with the Prophet, and these lasted a long time.
In the Muslim camp the Muslims listened these negotiations and often lost patience at their involvement and length, the obstinacy with which Suhayl refused to make any concessions, and the leniency with which the Prophet made his. If it was not an absolute confidence the Muslims had in their Prophet, they would have never accepted the terms reached by those negotiations. They would have fought with the Makkans and either entered Makkah victorious or perished in the process. Even such a great man as `Umar ibn al Khattab lost patience and said to Abu Bakr, "O Abu Bakr, isn't Muhammad the Prophet of Allah and aren't we Muslims?" Abu Bakr answered in the affirmative. 'Umar then said, "Why then we are receding non believers.” Abu Bakr replied, "O 'Umar, do not trespass one inch where you ought not to go. Remember that I witness that our leader is the Prophet of Allah." Angrily, 'Umar quickly said: "I, too, witness that our leader is the Prophet of Allah."
It is reported, for instance; that Muhammad called 'Ali ibn Abu Talib and said to him: "Write, 'In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate.'" Suhayl, the non-Muslim delegate of Quraysh interrupted. "Stop," he said, "I do not know either 'the Merciful' or 'the Compassionate.' Write, 'In your name, 0 God.'" The Prophet of God 'Following is the text of a pact reached by Muhammad, the Prophet of God and Suhayl ibn 'Amr.' " Suhayl again interrupted. "Stop it. If I accepted you as a Prophet of God I would not have been hostile to you. You should write only your name and the name of your father." The Prophet of God instructed 'Ali to write accordingly, referring to himself as Muhammad ibn 'Abdullah.
The text of the treaty was agreed upon. In the opinion of most biographers, the treaty specified that the peace was to last for ten years. The pact also specified that any person from Qurraish emigrating to Muhammad's camp without permission from his guardian would have to be returned to Makkah, whereas any Muslim emigrating from Muhammad's camp to Makkah would not have to be returned. It also specified that any tribe was free to ally itself to Muhammad, and likewise, any tribe seeking an alliance with Qurraish could do so without let or hindrance from the Muslims. The pact stipulated that Muhammad and his companions would leave the area of Makkah that year without fulfilling their religious function but that they might return the next year, enter the city and stay therein three days for this purpose while carrying no more than swords in their scabbards.
As soon as this pact was solemnly concluded by the parties concerned, the tribe of Khuza`ah entered into an alliance with Muhammad and that of Band Bakr with Quraysh. Soon after, Abu Jandal ibn Suhayl ibn 'Amr left Makkah forever and came to the Muslim camp seeking to join the Muslims. When Suhayl, the delegate of Qurraish to the Muslim camp, saw his son change loyalties, he struck him in the face and pulled him by the hair to return to the Qurraish. Abu Jandal was calling upon the Muslims to save him from the fate of being returned to the unbelievers who would persecute him for his faith. This greatly increased the Muslims' resentment and their dissatisfaction with the pact the Prophet had just concluded with Suhayl. But Muhammad spoke to Abu Jandal. "0 Abu Jandal," he said, "have patience and be disciplined; for Allah will soon provide for you and your other persecuted colleagues a way out of your suffering. We have entered with the Qurraish into a treaty of peace and we have exchanged with them a solemn pledge that none will cheat the other." Abu Jandal returned to Qurraish in compliance with the demand of this treaty and Suhayl returned to Makkah. Muhammad (SAW), was fully aware with the resentment and dissatisfaction of the Muslims around him. After reciting his prayers he reassured, sought his sacrificial animal, and slaughtered it. Then, he sat down and shaved his head, thus declaring the `umrah, or lesser pilgrimage, complete. His soul was satisfied and his heart full of contentment, as if the peace of God had come upon him. When the people saw what he did and observed the peace of soul shining through his face, they began to slaughter their animals and to shave off their hair. Some of them shaved off their hair completely.
Muslims returned to Madinah and there await the arrival of the coming season for another trip to Makkah, Most of them accepted this idea grudgingly, and consoled themselves purely on the grounds that the unwelcome compliance therewith was only the command of the Prophet(SAW) himself. They were not accustomed to defeat or to surrender without a fight. On their way home between Makkah and Madinah, the surah "al Fath" was revealed to the Prophet, and he recited it to his companions.
"We have granted to you a clear victory that God may forgive you your past and future shortcomings, grant you His blessings, and guide you to the straight path." [Qur’an, 48:1-30]
There was hence no reason to doubt that the Hudaybiyah Treaty was a victory for the Muslims. History has shown that this pact was the product of profound political wisdom and farsightedness and that it brought about consequences of great advantage to Islam and indeed to Arabia as a whole. It was the first time that Qurraish acknowledged that Muhammad was an equal rather than a mere rebel and runaway tribesman. It was the first time that Makkah acknowledged the Islamic state that was rising in Arabia; to perform the pilgrimage was equally recognition on her part that Islam was an established and approved religion in the Peninsula. Furthermore, the peace of the following two or ten years gave the Muslims the peace and security they needed on Qurraish. The peace also contributed to the spread of Islam. Indeed, Islam spread after this treaty more widely and quickly than it had ever spread before. While those who accompanied Muhammad to Hudaibiyah counted one thousand and four hundred, those who accompanied him on his conquest of Makkah two years later counted well over ten thousand. The greatest objection to those who doubted the wisdom of the Hudaibiyah pact was directed to the provision that any Qurraish member joining the Muslims without the permission of his guardian would have to be returned to Qurraish, and that any apostate from Islam would not have to be returned to Madinah. Muhammad's opinion in this matter centered on the consideration that the apostate from Islam who seeks the shelter of Qurraish is not really worthy of readmission to the Muslim community; that for the convert who wished to join that community but who was not allowed to at present, Allah would soon find an outlet. Events have confirmed this judgment of Muhammad far more quickly than his companions anticipated, and given evidence that Islam had actually drawn great advantages. Indeed, the treaty even made it possible two months later for Muhammad to begin to address himself to the kings and chiefs of foreign states and invite them to join Islam
A full year had passed since the Treaty of al Hudaybiyah. Muhammad (saw) and his companions were accordingly free to enter Makkah and to visit the Ka'bah under the terms of that treaty. The Prophet, therefore, proclaimed to the people that they might now prepare themselves to go to Makkah for performance Umrah. Many among them, the Muhajirun, were emigrants from Makkah who had left their hometown seven years ago. Others, the Ansar, conducted wide trade with Makkah and felt great love and loyalty to Kaaba which they longed to visit. They exceeded two thousand in number. Hence, there were six hundred or more than in the previous year. In compliance with the terms of the Hudaybiyah Treaty, none of them carried any arms except his sword which he kept in its scabbard. Muhammad feared treachery. He therefore equipped a hundred cavalrymen and assigned them to Muhammad ibn Maslamah. The Muslims herded before them the sacrificial animals; the entire procession was led by Muhammad9SAW) riding his she-camel, al Qaswa. They set out from Madinah in the direction of Makkah moved by the strongest emotion to circle the House of Allah and to see the places where they were born.
Muslims performed Umra, while Holy Prophet (SAW) leading them with Tawaaf, Saai and all other rituals. They performed this all in the dynamic leadership of their leader, Muhammad (SAW). Under this un parallel leadership, Makkah was conquered after a couple of years, Kaaba was cleaned from idols and staunch enemies embraced Islam.
After the great Battle of Tabook which was not actually fought later on but it was a great call to fight with a big power of that time Roman Empire.
Next year Prophet (SAW) planned for performing Hajj with his whole family. Whole of Arabian Peninsula has embraced Islam now.
His Last sermon is the summary of his teachings and commands from Allah (swt). It is a by- laws for Islamic jurisprudence. Prophet(SAW) emphasized all the rights over each other.
The Prophet's Last Sermon
While sitting on his camel, on the mount of Rehamt in Arafat on the day of Arafaa, he delivered his sermon in a loud voice to his people. Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah ibn Khalaf repeated the sermon after him sentence by sentence. He began by praising God and thanking Him, and then turning to the people, he said:
"O Men, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether I shall meet you again on such an occasion in the future. O Men, your lives and your property are sacred for each other as on this holy day and holy month. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Thus I warn you. Whoever of you is keeping a trust of someone else shall return that trust to its rightful owner. All interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. Allah has judged that there shall be no interest and that all the interest due to `Abbas ibn `Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived. And the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi'ah ibn al Harith ibn `Abd al Muttalib. It is your right that they not fraternize with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to commit adultery. But if they do, then God has permitted you to isolate them within their homes and to chastise them without cruelty. But if they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. Remember that you have taken them as your wives and enjoyed their flesh only under God's trust and with His permission. Reason well, therefore, O Men, and ponder my words which I now convey to you. I am leaving you with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet. If you follow them, you will never go astray. O Men, Listen well to my words. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to your own selves. O God, have I conveyed Your message?"
As the Prophet delivered his speech, Rabi'ah repeated it sentence by sentence and asked the people every now and then whether or not they had understood the Prophet's words and committed them to memory. In order to make sure that the people understood and remembered, the Prophet used to ask his crier to say: "The Prophet of Allah asks, `Do you know which day is this?" The audience would answer, "Today is the day of the greater pilgrimage." The Prophet then would say, "Tell them that Allah has declared inviolate your lives and your property until the day you will meet your Lord; that he has made the safety of your property and of your lives as inviolate as this day." At the end of his speech, the Prophet asked, "O Allah, have I conveyed your message?" And the people answered from all corners, "Indeed so! Allah is witness."
When the Prophet finished his sermon, he dismounted and waited until noon, at which time he performed both the noon and the midafternoon prayers. He recited to the people the concluding divine revelation: "Today I have completed for you your religion, and granted you the last of my blessings. Today I have accepted for you Islam as the religion." [Qur’an, 5:4] When Abu Bakr heard this verse he realized that with the completion of the divine message, the Prophet's life was soon to come to a close.
Today, if we ponder about the life of Prophet (SAW), we can realize his most amazing personality with greatest leadership qualities in all spheres of life. ISLAM calls for equality between people. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: "An Arab has no superiority to a non-Arab and a white man has no superiority to a black one except through piety and good deeds."
Abu Dharr of the Ghifar tribe somehow got angry with the freed slave of Abu Bakr, Bilal of Abyssinia. Both of them were the companions of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
The altercation became prolonged and Abu Dharr in his fury called Bilal, the son of a black-skinned mother.
Bilal complained to the Prophet, who addressed Abu Dharr saying, "Did you call him a name reviling his mother? It appears you still retain vestiges of Jahiliyyah (Period of Ignorance before Islam)." The Prophet also said in reply, "You are his brother (and should be considerate and kind to him)."
Abu Dharr was ashamed and repentant and out of extreme repentance and humility requested Bilal to trample his face with his feet.
Another example is when, during the lifetime of the Prophet, a woman of the Bani Makhzoom tribe, Fatimah, was found guilty of theft. She was brought to the Prophet so that she might receive her punishment according to the Shari 'ah (Islamic Law).
The Quraish tribe very much resented it since it involved their tribal prestige and dignity. So they thought of intercession by somebody for the remission of her punishment.
It was therefore decided after deliberation to send Osamah Bin Zaid for such intercession since he was very much in favour with the Prophet. So he was approached, prompted to intercede and he talked to the Prophet on this issue.
The Prophet was very angry and said to Osamah, "You intercede in the matter of the limits prescribed by God?"
Then he called a big gathering of the believers and, in a touching manner, said, "The people before you who met their doom, discriminated between the autocrats and the common people in the dispensation of justice for crimes like theft. The high-placed were spared while the weaker sections of society were readily punished. By God, if Fatimah Bint Muhammad had committed theft, I would have amputated her hand also. A third example involves Adi Bin Hatim(one of the elite of his time) who came to Madinah before embracing Islam and found the companions sitting around the Prophet.
They had just returned from some battle and some of them still had the armoury and helmets on. 'Adi, witnessing the awe of the Prophet and their reverence for him, himself fell in awe.
Meanwhile, a humble woman of Madinah came to the Prophet and requested to see him in private.
The Prophet readily agreed to talk to her. He got up and at some distance from the gathering talked to her for a sufficiently long time, and having finished with her came back to the gathering.
When 'Adi witnessed this state of affairs, he was very much touched by this inconceivable concept of generosity in action and embraced Islam.
A fourth example was offered when, after 21 years of hard struggle, the Prophet conquered Makkah. Those who had rejected him, had driven him out of his home and had been waging wars with him were brought before him vanquished. But even then, he called them to the Faith and kept in view those lofty principles that he had preached in the vales of Makkah or had enforced in Madinah as a ruler when he was laying the foundations of a new civilization in the Islamic history.
The Prophet (saw) asked them, “what do you think, how I am going to deal with you?” They replied, “You are an honoured and noble brother and son of an honoured and noble brother.” On which he replied, “All right all of you are forgiven and he repeated the verses of sura al Yousaf قَالَ لَا تَثۡرِيبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ ٱلۡيَوۡمَۖ يَغۡفِرُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمۡۖ وَهُوَ أَرۡحَمُ
ٱلرَّٲحِمِينَ He said: Have no fear this day! May Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy. (92
That day he proclaimed those principles that he had been preaching while he had not yet gained his final victory.
Standing at the gate of the Ka'aba he said, "O you people of Quraish! Allah has, this day, put an end to your pride of the Jahiliyyah (Days of Ignorance) and also the pride of your ancestry. Keep in mind! All men are the offspring of Adam, and Adam was fashioned out of clay". The Quraish who held an exalted position in the Arab society, and had a high opinion of themselves, listened to him in silence with bowed heads. On this occasion he recited the following Qur 'anic verse which he had been reciting off and on: "O Mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (not that you may despise each other). Verily, the most honoured of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you."
The same rules were followed by the caliphs after Prophet (saw). During the period of the caliphate of Abu Bakr. He set the example of a ruler whose heart was full of sympathy for his subjects without distinction of rank or class. Notwithstanding his position as the head of the Muslim state, he would visit the girls of the locality whose fathers had fallen martyrs in wars.
He milked their goats for them and assured them that his new responsibilities would not stand between him and his routine of benevolent acts such as that.
Salallahu taalaa alaa khairi khalqihi Muhammadun wa Alihi wa Ashabihi Ajmaiin.